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In the post independence era, there are several important events that happened in India. For instance, the formation of the states of Assam, Manipur and Mizoram was a major event in the history of the country.
Assam, Meghalaya and Mizoram formed in the 1960-70s
In the 1960s and 1970s, three northeastern states – Assam, Meghalaya and Mizoram – became independent. However, the region’s history has seen major armed conflicts and tensions. These conflicts are rooted in the issue of foreigners. The region has a long history of refugee migration from Nepal and Myanmar. These refugees have posed a formidable threat to the region.
Before the end of the colonial era, the region was ruled by various dynasties. In the mid-1830s, most local rulers acceded to British rule. During this period, the British created administrative convenience boundaries within the region. This led to constant warfare among princes. During the early eighties, a massive influx of people from Bhutan, Bangladesh, and Myanmar contributed to the crisis.
As the colonial power declined, the state of Assam aspired to have a more viable working model. It sought to protect the tribal culture of the region. This policy led to the creation of Naga and Garo institutions in Assam.
Assam, Meghalaya and Mizoram became states on 1 December 1963
On 1 December 1963, Assam, Meghalaya and Mizoram became states in the northeast. However, the three state formations did not put an end to the demand for separate states. There have been several separatist movements in the region, which have caused loss of lives and unhygienic conditions for thousands.
During the British rule, Meghalaya was a part of Assam. However, the region was ruled by local chieftains. In the late 19th century, it was merged with East Bengal. Ahom people arrived in Assam in the 13th century. They were displaced by warriors from Myanmar in the 18th century.
Ahom power and prosperity reached a zenith under King Rudra Singh. In the early 1970s, tribal groups in Meghalaya began agitating for an autonomous state. ULFA, the United Liberation Front of Assam, began a guerrilla campaign to attain secession.
Assam, Meghalaya and Mizoram became states on 21 January 1972
The North-Eastern Areas (Reorganization) Act, 1971 was enacted on December 30, 1971. The Act resulted in a major change in the boundaries of the North-Eastern region. The reorganisation created five states: Arunachal Pradesh, Tripura, Manipur, Mizoram Hibooz and Nagaland. It also established a common high court for the two union territories of Assam and Nagaland.
In the 1960s, there was a burgeoning agitation for self-rule in the northeastern part of India. In 1969, Meghalaya was established as an autonomous state within Assam. This was done under paragraph 12A of the Sixth Schedule of the Indian constitution. In 1972, Meghalaya became a full-fledged state.
The reorganisation of Assam in the early 1970s led to the separation of Meghalaya. The state’s independence was peaceful. However, the border dispute between Assam and Meghalaya was not resolved.
Manipur became a state on 21 January 1972
Manipur became a state on January 21, 1972 after its inclusion as one of the new states in the North Eastern Region (Re-organisation) Act, 1971. Its neighbors are Mizoram and Nagaland.
Manipur is a northeastern state of India. It shares borders with Mizoram and Nagaland on the west, Myanmar on the south and Assam on the east. It is home to the Manipuri, Kuki and Pangal ethnic groups. The state has a population of around 3 million. It has an agrarian economy, and has significant hydroelectric power generation potential. The capital is Imphal. The state’s main language is Manipuri.
The state was initially part of the Assam Province, which was under British rule. After independence, Manipur became a sovereign state with an elected government. However, the state faced pressures, and the anti-monarchy movement was a strong pull.
Jammu and Kashmir became a source of controversy during the First Indo-Pakistani War
The Kashmir issue is a complex and contentious issue between India and Pakistan. Its origins date back to the early 19th century when imperial powers, like Britain, tried to dominate South Asia. The resulting conflicts entangled a two billion population. The region is known as Kashmir, and has been the subject of three wars.
The first major war between the two nations fashionnowdays took place in 1947. At the time, India was on the verge of independence from the British. In August, Princely states had to decide whether they would accede to India or Pakistan. The two nations subsequently agreed to a cease-fire line, referred to as the line of control, which separated the Indian and Pakistani territories. However, the line did not settle the status of the region.